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Polynucleotides (PNs) are a type of biomolecule that have recently gained traction in the field of skin care and aesthetic treatments. PNs are composed of multiple nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. These biomolecules have shown promise in improving the appearance and health of the skin through their ability to stimulate cell growth (activate growth factors), tissue regeneration incl. collagen production, wound healing, fibroblast proliferation and have anti-inflammatory properties.
Polynucleotides (PN) are linear polymers composed of many nucleotide units and they play a key role in the storage and transmission of genetic information. There are two types of polynucleotides (aka nucleic acid) found in nature: ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). As mentioned, PN are composed of nucleotides, which consist of 3 parts: a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group. and a five-carbon sugar (2'-deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA). The five base nucleotides are adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. A DNA molecule consists of two long polynucleotide chains composed of four types of nucleotide subunits: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, while RNA uses adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil.
Regenerative aesthetics is an emerging branch of regenerative medicine with therapies or products aimed at recapturing youthful structure and function using the body's own systems. Examples of such treatments are platelet-rich plasma (PRP), the use of exosomes or polynucleotides.
Dr. Kate Goldie explained soft tissue regeneration fundamentals as following:
1. Regeneration of tissue architecture (structure): tissue composition - component abundance, ratio's, position, density and biomechanics/integrity
2. Regeneration of tissue function: signaling, cell function, cellular components (incl. senescence), gene expression and molecular interaction.
The 3 treatment pillars of regenerative aesthetics are: cells, biocues and bio-stimulatory scaffolds. Key superficial soft quiescent cells are the fibroblasts and adipose derived stem cells. One of the big advantages of regenerative aesthetics is by using the body's own system, the results are natural and focused on "skin health" (function) and "skin quality" (appearance).
POLYNUCLEOTIDES IN REGENERATIVE AESTHETICS
Polynucleotides are most often natural, highly purified DNA molecules extracted for example from trout gonads and activate specialised cells called myofibroblasts and adipocytes. PN containing devices act as short time temporary fillers thanks to the viscoelasticity of the long DNA fragments and improve skin well‐being (cell growth) and steady self‐repair (tissue regeneration). Studies support their dermal reactivating properties or their efficacy as “bioreactivating primers” of skin. The final outcome is more natural and in‐depth tissue regeneration and a healthier look of the skin: a more radiant complexion, even skin tone, reduced appearance of fine lines, wrinkles and sagging, faster wound healing, improved pore size and skin thickness, elasticity and hydration. Furthermore, PNs are generally well-tolerated by the skin and have a low risk of adverse effects. Their effectiveness may vary depending on the individual's skin type, age, and overall health. The long-term effects of PNs on the skin are not yet fully understood, and more research is needed to determine their safety and efficacy. There are various brands available which use polynucleotides in their (meso-) injection gels. For example Mastelli Srl, Italy NEWEST® (Polynucleotide and Hyaluronic Acid) for bio-revitalization, BR Pharm HP Cell Vitaran Skin Healers, NUCLEADYN® or Nucleofill®.
One brand of (synthetic) polynucleotide-based skin care products is Yuva by Dr. Devgan Scientific Beauty. The Yuva line includes a range of products formulated with PNs, such as the Yuva Serum and the Yuva Enhancer. These products are marketed as being able to provide hydrating, anti-aging, and skin-rejuvenating benefits.
THE FUTURE OF POLYNUCLEOTIDES
While polynucleotides have many benefits, they also have some drawbacks. One of the primary limitations is their instability in certain environments. This instability can make it difficult to synthesize and manipulate polynucleotides in the lab. Moreover their are limitations, risks and ethical concerns harvesting or using (human identical) PN's, and long-term safety and efficacy data is not conclusive. However, PNs are a promising area of research in the field of skin care and aesthetic treatments and regeneration. We can expect to see further advancements in the development of PNs-based products and treatments. PNs are already used in combination with other biomolecules, such as hyaluronic acid, growth factors and anti-oxidants and used in combination with other treatments. For a personal recommendation on which aesthetic treatment is most suitable to aesthetically regenerate your skin, please consult an experienced board certified dermatologist, plastic surgeon or cosmetic doctor.
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